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Light Beam Induced Current
(LBIC) Measurement

Model: HO-LBIC-3LC


Light Beam Induced Current (LBIC) is a valuable tool for defect analysis in solar cells used to measure the spatial distribution of recombination active defects in solar cells. It works by illuminating a laser beam onto a solar cell and measuring the resulting current. The current is higher at locations where there are more recombination defects, so by scanning the laser beam across the solar cell, a map of the defect density can be created.

Our instrument uses three lasers with wavelengths of 405nm, 532nm, and 655nm to measure the spatial distribution of recombination active defects in solar cells. The different wavelengths allow us to probe different depths within the solar cell, which helps us to identify defects that are located at different layer.

LBIC is a well-established method primarily used in the photovoltaic sector for spatially resolved measurements of recombinationactive defects in ready-processed solar cells.

Holmarc Laser Beam Induced Current (LBIC) systems Model : HO-LBIC-3LC provide rapid, high-resolution mapping of the photovoltaic response in solar cells across large areas, from individual cells to entire modules. These systems are ideal for measuring photovoltaic active regions, identifying defects, shunts, inactive areas, and coating errors.

The low-noise design ensures immunity to external light interference, and they are available in both single-wavelength and multiwavelength congurations for testing various photovoltaic responses.

# Breadboard is not in the scope of supply.


    Laser Wavelengths :     405nm, 532nm and 655nm
    MLL-III-405-50mW, MLL-III-532-50mW & MLL-III-655-50mW
    High output power stability, CW, Line width < 0.2 nm, Beam diameter < 1.5mm, Beam divergence < 1.5 mrad, PSU-III-FDA
    Tunable output power via control knob & PC Controlled Operation
    Laser Spot Size :     2μm - 50μm selectable via objective lens
    4 Axis Micromanipulator (XYZ & Tilt)
    Model :     MIM-4A-10
    4 Travel :     XYZ 10 mm & +/- 3 degree
    Scanning Area :     250 x 250 mm
    Mapping resolution :     1 μm
    Absolute positioning accuracy :     5 μm
    Construction :     Aluminium alloy on any rust-free
    Finish :     Black anodized
    Linear guide :     Recirculation block and rail
    Drive :     Rolled ball screw, Pitch 4 mm
    Actuator :     Stepper motor
    Maximum speed :     16 mm / sec
    Limit switch :     Optical Limit switch on both ends
    Pay-Load :     8 Kg
    Controller :     HOLMARC XYZ Stepper controller Unit with Joystick

    Identifying defects, coating errors, shunts, and photovoltaically inactive regions.

    Predicting lifetime, mobility, and defect details.

    Determining external quantum effciency (EQE) based on laser power and wavelength





fig. 2μm High resolution scan of solar cell


Probe Tip Specifications

    Current Rating  :  1 Amp

    Voltage Rating  :  Based on placement distance

    Operating Temperature  :  -40ºC to +125ºC

    Contact Material  :  Brass

    Contact Plating  :  Gold over Nickel



320 - 1600 nm

Wavelength Operation

Holmarc also provides an integrated monochromator system for continuous wavelength measurements spanning from 320 nm to 1600 nm

Keithley 2450SMU Instrument

    Source Meter  :  Keithley 2450SMU Instrument

    Voltage - Ranges  :  20 mV - 200 V depending on the selected voltage range

    Current - Ranges  :  10 nA - 1 A depending on the selected current range

    0.012 % Basic Accuracy

    Wideband Noise  :  2 mVrms Typ

    Sweep Types  :  Linear, Log, Dual Linear, Dual Log, Custom

    Source-Memory (SCPI 2400 Mode)

    > 2,50,000 Point Reading Buffer

    > 3000 Readings / Second

    SCPI (2400 + 2450) + TSP Programming

    GPIB, USB, Ethernet (LXI)

    Front  :  Banana Jacks, Rear: Triax


Sample Inspection Camera

    20MP CMOS for Imaging

    Sensor model  :  Sony

    Quantum efficiency  :  84% @ 535 nm

    Resolution  :  5472 (H) x 3648 (V)

    Pixel size  :  2.40 m x 2.40 m

    Sensor size  :  15.86 mm; 1 inch

    Shutter mode  :  Rolling

    Frame rate  :  14fps @ 5472 x 3648, 53fps @ 2736 x 1824, 67fps @ 1824 x 1216

    Binning  :  2 x 2, 3 x 3, 4 x 4

    Exposure settings  :  Auto/Manual

    Picture format  :  JPG / PNG / TIFF / DICOM

    Data interface  :  USB 3.0

    Bit depth  :  16 bit / 8 bit

    Power supply  :  12V


Real-Time Photoluminescence (PL) Measurement / Mapping System

Photoluminescence spectroscopy offers valuable insights into the electronically excited states of molecules and substances following light absorption.

Holmarc provides various accessories for photoluminescence (PL) detection and mapping. In parallel, Light Beam Induced Current (LBIC) helps identify defects in solar cells. By combining these techniques, we enhance our understanding of photovoltaic materials and their behavior.



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